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Sacroiliac joint

The joint or articulation between the sacrum (the bone at the bottom of the spine) and ilium (the large, uppermost pelvic bone) - also called sacroiliac ar sacroiliac articulation.


A disease involving inflammation, usually in the lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. Sarcoidosis starts as tiny, grain-like lumps, called granulomas and can affect any organ in the body.


Scintimammography is a type of breast imaging test used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have already had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue. This is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram.


The first visit to the site of a clinical trial, that evaluates whether the person can participate or not. The patient meets the specialist and study coordinator, reviews the informed consent form, undergoes a physical exam and tests, reviews their medical history, etc. If they qualify, a baseline visit is scheduled.

Sex hormone

A hormone, such as estrogen or testosterone, affecting sexual development or reproduction.

Single-blind trial

The study type in which one party, either the investigator or patient, doesn’t know what medication the patient is taking.


Sinus tract

A narrow, elongated channel in the body that allows the escape of fluid.

Speech language pathologist (Speech therapists)

Specialist who helps people with language and communication disorders.

Spine / vertebrae

The backbone. Vertebrae are any of the bony or cartilaginous segments that make up the spinal column.


An organ in the lymphatic system. Located on the left side of the abdomen near the stomach, the spleen makes lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells.


Clinical trials are initiated by a sponsor. This can be a company; a university or health care institution; a private or public group; even an individual.


A means of describing or classifying cancer based on the extent of the cancer in the body.

Standards of care (real life treatment)

The current or usual way of treating a disease, outside of a clinical trial.


To destroy microorganisms which adhere to surfaces, usually by bringing objects to a high temperature with steam, dry heat, or boiling liquid.


When joints feel lacking in suppleness.


Narrowing of a hollow tube in the body. Abnormal narrowing of the bowel due to inflammation and scarring.

Study design

The investigative methods used in a clinical study.

Study endpoint

A criterion that will help judge if the treatment is effective or not. For example, in a study evaluating the ability of an antibiotic to treat an infection, an endpoint could be the disappearance of the fever.

Study type

Describes the nature of a clinical trial. Study types include interventional or observational studies.

Sub-optimal response

A response to treatment that is below the most favorable or current one.

Sugar pill


Sweat gland tube

A tubular gland of the skin that excretes perspiration.


Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that can affect the genital area, lips, mouth, or anus of both men and women. Syphilis can be transmitted from sexual contact with someone who has it. It can also pass from mother to baby during pregnancy.