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Too small to be seen with the naked eye, bacteria exist in the thousands, millions, even billions in and on the body. This is normal and many types of bacteria actually help our bodies. The ‘good’ bacteria are beneficial – ‘bad’ bacteria can cause illness.

Basal-like breast cancer

This cancer make too much of a certain type of protein plus they have too many epidermal growth factor receptors which affect cell growth.


The information first gathered about a patient at the beginning of a study. Data collected throughout the trial are often compared to the baseline to see changes over the course of the trial.

Behcet’s syndrome

A disease involving inflammation of the blood vessels; it may affect many parts of the body.


When a point of view prevents objective judgment on issues relating to the patient. In clinical studies, bias is controlled through blinding and randomization.



A yellow or greenish liquid that is made by the liver, that helps the body to digest fats.

Biologic (drug)

A substance that is made from a living organism or its products, and used in the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of diseases. Biological drugs include antibodies, interleukins, and vaccines.


The removal of samples of tissue, cells or fluids from the living body. Biopsies can be taken using a biopsy instrument that is passed through the skin or through an endoscope into the organ in question, or is collected by open surgery. A trained specialist (pathologist) examines the tissue under a microscope to establish a precise diagnosis such as cancer.

Blood thinners

If you have heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend a blood thinner. Blood thinners can decrease the risk of heart attack and stroke by reducing the formation of blood clots in your arteries and veins.

Body surface area involvement

Body surface area (BSA) is the total surface area of the human body. The body surface area is used in many measurements in medicine, including as an indicator (BSA involvement) of the extent and severity of psoriasis.


A localized swelling and inflammation of the skin usually resulting from bacterial infection of a hair follicle and adjacent tissue, having a hard central core, and forming pus.

Bone scan

A bone scan is a procedure that checks for abnormal areas or damage in the bones. Prior to the scan, a very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein. This collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner (a special camera that takes pictures of the inside of the body).


Another name for the intestines: the small bowel (duodenum, jejunum and ileum), and the large bowel (colon and rectum).


BRCA 1 is a gene on the human chromosome 17 and BRCA 2 is a gene on chromosome 13. These genes normally help to control cell growth. A person who inherits certain mutations (changes) in one or both of these genes has a higher risk of getting breast, ovarian, prostate, and other types of cancer.


An inflammation of the lining of the tubes which carry air to and from your lungs. People who suffer from bronchitis often cough up thickened mucus, which may be discolored. Bronchitis may be acute (improves within a few days) or chronic (recurring or present for longer periods).