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Gallstones are hard, pebble-like deposits that form inside the gallbladder. Gallstones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball.


A gastroenterologist is a doctor who specializes in the study of digestive organs including the liver.


A surgical procedure for inserting a tube through the abdomen wall and into the stomach. The tube is used for feeding, drainage or medication intake.


Carries the information inside each cell of the body that determines your biological traits, which are features or characteristics that are passed on to you by your parents.


Relating to, caused by, or controlled by genes.


The genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits; the sum total of genes transmitted from parent to offspring.


Glaucoma is a group of diseases associated with damage to the eye's optic nerve. Glaucoma occurs when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises, damaging the optic nerve. Without treatment, people with glaucoma may slowly lose their peripheral (side) vision. Over time, blindness may result.


A sugar occurring in many fruits, animal tissues and fluids, etc., and having a sweetness about 1/2 that of ordinary sugar.

Good Clinical Practice (GCP)

The GCP defines international quality standards that governments can incorporate into regulations for clinical trials involving human subjects. Good Clinical Practice guidelines include standards on how clinical trials should be conducted. These also define the roles and responsibilities of clinical trial sponsors, investigators, and monitors. Monitors are hired by the sponsor to verify that the data/information at the site (hospital, clinic) is accurate.


A type of immune cell that contains granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma.

Growth factor

A substance made by the body that regulates cell division and cell survival.