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SEE Observational study and Observational model

Observational model

The general design and strategy as to identifying and following up with participants during observational studies. Types of observational study models include cohort, case-control, case-only, case-crossover, ecologic or community studies and family-based.

Observational study

A study whereby patients identified as belonging to study groups are assessed for biomedical or health outcomes. Patients may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of treatments, but the investigator does not assign participants to specific interventions (as in an interventional study).

Occupational therapist (provides occupational therapy)

Health professional trained to help people who are ill or disabled learn in the management of their daily activities.


A doctor who specialises in treating patients with cancer.

Open-label trial

A clinical trial in which both the researchers and the patients know who receives the drug and who receives a placebo.


A medical doctor specializing in the branch of medical science dealing with the anatomy, functions, and diseases of the eye.


Any infection caused by a microorganism that does not normally cause disease in humans; occurs in persons with abnormally weak immune systems (such as AIDS patients or transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs).


A licensed professional who examines the eyes (using suitable instruments or appliances) for defects in vision and eye disorders in order to prescribe corrective lenses or other appropriate treatment.


The bones of a person with osteoporosis are weak and more likely to break. Anyone can develop osteoporosis; however, it is common in older women.


In biology, “overexpression” means to make too many copies of a protein or other substance. Overexpression of certain proteins or other substances can play a role in cancer development.