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Efficacy study

Testing the ability of a drug treatment to produce the desired result. A drug passes efficacy trials if it is effective at the dose tested and against the illness for which it is prescribed.

Eligibility criteria

The inclusion and exclusion parameters that define the requirements for patient selection and whether a patient can or cannot participate in the research study.



A disease that slowly damages the air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs. Over time, people with emphysema are increasingly short of breath.


A procedure used to examine the digestive tract; using a flexible tube with a light and camera to view pictures of the digestive tract on a monitor.

Endpoint (outcome)

An outcome or result that the study has been designed to evaluate. Examples of endpoints include: the occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial.


Enthesis (plural: entheses) is the point at which a tendon or ligament or muscle inserts into bone, where the collagen fibers are mineralized and integrated into bone tissue.

Enthesitis is inflammation of the entheses, the sites where tendons or ligaments insert into the bone, points where recurring stress or inflammatory autoimmune disease can cause inflammation or occasionally fibrosis and calcification. One of the primary entheses involved in inflammatory autoimmune disease is at the heel, particularly the Achilles tendon.


A chemical substance in animals and plants that aids natural biological processes (such as digestion).

Epidemiological study

Epidemiology is the science of the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. Epidemiologists help with study design, collection and statistical analysis of data, and interpretation and dissemination of results.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) is a blood test that measures the speed at which red blood cells precipitate (settle at the bottom of the test tube) in one hour. When there is inflammation in the body, it produces proteins in the blood, which make the red cells clump together, causing them to fall faster than healthy blood cells. The ESR is a common blood test that is an indirect measure of inflammation, which can be caused by several conditions. CRP is a protein produced by the liver that is normally present in trace amounts in the blood serum but is elevated during episodes of acute inflammation.


A soft muscular tube of the digestive tract that carries food from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.


Estrogen is a hormone made by the body that helps develop and maintain female sex characteristics and plays a role in the growth of long bones. Estrogen can also be made in the laboratory. Estrogen may be used for birth control and to treat symptoms of menopause, menstrual disorders, osteoporosis, and other conditions.

Estrogen receptor

An estrogen receptor is a protein found inside the cells of the female reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, as well as some cancer cells. The hormone estrogen will bind (attach to) the receptors inside the cells and may cause the cells to grow.

Ethics committee (EC)

A group of individuals formed to protect the interests of patients and address moral issues. Made up of physicians, researchers and community members, the EC reviews, approves and continuously monitors every trial to ensure that research risks are minimized in relation to the potential benefits. Most ethics committees work in an advisory capacity; they can help patients and families reach informed decisions and work with health care providers in order to make complex and difficult decisions.

Every Other Week (EOW)

Treatment that occurs Every Other Week – meaning the treatment alternates every week.

Extra-articular manifestations

Perceptible, visible expressions of a disease or abnormal condition that occur or are situated outside a joint.