| B
| C
| D
| E
| F
| G
| H
| I
| J
| K
| L
| M
| N
| O
| P
| R
| S
| T
| U
| V
| W



Medication to block an enzyme responsible for breaking down levodopa before it reaches the brain; carbidopa is always given in combination with levodopa.


A cancer that starts in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.


A strong but flexible, somewhat elastic tissue found in some parts of the body (such as the nose, the outer ear, and some joints).


A cataract is a clouding of the lens in your eye which may affect vision. Cataracts commonly occur in older people.

Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors

Medications that block an important enzyme responsible for breaking down levodopa before it reaches the brain.

Cat-scratch disease

CSD is an infection caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. About half of all cats carry this bacteria. Although the infection does not make cats sick, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause symptoms in people.


A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve pain, tenderness, swelling and stiffness associated with osteoarthritis (arthritis due to a breakdown of the lining of the joints), rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.


Cells are the basic building blocks of the body's tissues. The human body is made up of many different types of cells. Human cells vary in size, but all can only be seen with a microscope.

Central nervous system prophylaxis

Chemotherapy or radiation therapy used on the central nervous system (CNS) to prevent cancer spreading there.

Cerebrospinal fluid

The fluid that flows in and around the hollow spaces of the brain and spinal cord, and between the thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord.

CHEK2 gene mutation

People with this condition have a mutation in the CHEK2 tumour suppressor gene.


The choroid is the layer of blood vessels and connective tissue that rests between the white of the eye and retina (at the back of the eye). The choroid is part of the uvea and supplies nutrients to the inner parts of the eye.


An inflammation of the choroid.


Persisting over a long period of time. Relating to disease, one that is slow in progressing and long lasting.

Ciliary body

The ciliary body is a structure in the eye that releases a transparent liquid (aqueous humor) inside the eye.


Cirrhosis is a medical condition in which hard scar tissue largely replaces soft, healthy tissue in the liver. Severe scarring of the liver can prevent it from functioning well. It is important to know that cirrhosis is the end result of many kinds of injury to the liver, such as alcohol, hepatitis C, autoimmune liver disease, and others (alone or in combination). Therefore, any chronic liver disease that is severe and progressive can result in cirrhosis.

Clinical effectiveness

The efficacy of the drug or treatment in the “real-life” context of the doctor’s practice. Studying the clinical effectiveness of a drug or treatment serves to confirm the results of the controlled clinical trials used to obtain regulatory approval.



Can be used alone or with aspirin to prevent serious or life-threatening problems with the heart and blood vessels in persons who have experienced a stroke, heart attack, or severe chest pain.

CMV retinitis

Most people are exposed to CMV in their lifetime, but typically only those with weakened immune systems become ill from CMV infection. Symptoms include blind spots, blurred vision and other vision problems as well as floaters.


In epidemiology, a group of individuals sharing common characteristics such as age or gender.



Also known as the large bowel or large intestine. It connects above to the small bowel and food passes through it to form stool. The lower end, known as the rectum, is continuous with the anus.

Colony stimulating factors (CSFs)

These are treatments used to diminish some of the side effects of cancer treatments, particularly bone marrow suppression. CSFs stimulate the bone marrow so that it increases its production of blood cells. With more blood cells the risk of infection, anemia and bleeding is reduced.

Compassionate use

The way experimental therapeutics can be provided prior to final regulatory authorities' approval for use in humans.

This procedure is used to provide treatment to very sick patients who have no other treatment options. Approval from regulatory authorities for the compassionate use of a drug might be obtained on a case-by-case basis.

Consent form

The written document that is signed when giving informed consent. Informed consent is collected according to guidelines from the fields of medical ethics and research ethics. Informed consent can be said to have been given based upon a clear appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and future consequences of an action. In order to give informed consent, the individual concerned must have adequate reasoning faculties and be in possession of all relevant facts at the time consent is given.


Constipation means that a person has three or less bowel movements in a week. In most cases, constipation lasts a short time and is not serious.


Can spread from one person or organism to another by direct or indirect contact.


Corticosteroids are a group of natural and synthetic analogs of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. They are prescribed on a short-term basis as fast-working medication for particularly severe and painful symptoms.



Corticosteroids are a group of natural and synthetic analogs of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. They are prescribed on a short-term basis as fast-working medication for particularly severe and painful symptoms.


Cowden syndrome

Also known as Cowden disease, involves a mutation in the tumour suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN).

C-reactive protein (CRP)

CRP is a protein produced by the liver that is normally present in trace amounts in the blood serum but is elevated during episodes of acute inflammation. See ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE (ESR)

Crohn’s disease

A type of inflammatory bowel disease that causes irritation of the digestive, or gastrointestinal (GI) tract.


Also known as intermediate uveitis, it affects the ciliary body.


A medication used to treat cancer of the ovaries, breast, blood and lymph system, and nerves (mainly in children). Cyclophosphamide is also used for retinoblastoma (a type of eye cancer that occurs mainly in children), multiple myeloma (cancer in the bone marrow), and mycosis fungoides (tumours on the skin). Cyclophosphamide belongs to a group of cancer medicines called alkylating agents.


Paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye.


Ophthalmic cyclosporine is a drug used to increase tear production in people with dry eyes. Cyclosporine works by decreasing swelling in the eye to allow for tear production.


A noncancerous, closed pocket of tissue that can be filled with fluid, pus, or other substance. Cysts feel like large peas under the surface of the skin.