ABOUT ATOPIC DERMATITIS
In this section, you or a loved one can find out more about medical treatments for atopic dermatitis. We also provide practical advice about atopic dermatitis and offer tips on how to tap into your support network. Read on and you’ll find answers to some of your questions as well as links to resources with more information. Being informed is an important first step towards becoming an active decision-maker in your care plan.
WHAT IS ATOPIC DERMATITIS?
In the vast majority of cases, atopic dermatitis occurs before age 5. Sometimes the symptoms seem to go away, particularly in the teen years, but then come back in early adult life. In Canada, an estimated 12% of children aged 6 to 7 years, 16% of teens aged 12 to 17 years and about 3 percent of adults aged 18 to 65 years have atopic dermatitis.
Atopic dermatitis—also commonly referred to as eczema or atopic eczema—is a chronic disease, meaning once it starts, it can persist life-long. The main signs of atopic dermatitis are itch, dry skin, bumps and thickening of the skin. There is no cure for atopic dermatitis, but there are ways to reduce the symptoms and improve quality of life.
Our skin acts as a barrier between us and the outside world. In people with atopic dermatitis, the skin barrier doesn’t work as well as it does in healthy skin. This means bacteria, irritants, and allergens can enter the skin and moisture can escape. As a result, the skin becomes dry, itchy and inflamed-looking. This inflammation can appear purple, brown or grayish hue in darker skin tones and red in lighter skin tones.
Normal and atopic skin
Adapted from the National Eczema Association (USA)
In atopic dermatitis, scratching can lead to disruption and inflammation of the skin barrier, known as the itch scratch cycle.
Itch scratch cycle
Adapted from the National Eczema Association (USA)
There are 2 main phases of atopic dermatitis, the acute phase where itching, dryness and inflamed skin are the main symptoms and the chronic phase where years of scratching result in thick leathery skin.
People with atopic dermatitis may have periods when the symptoms get worse (flare-ups) and periods when there are few symptoms (remission).
Adapted from the McGill University Health Centre
Atopic dermatitis can range from mild to severe, based on how much of the body is affected, size and intensity of the inflamed patches, as well as the extent to which a patient’s quality of life is affected.
According to a recent survey an estimated 45% of patients have the mild form; while 42% and 13% have the moderate and severe forms, respectively.
- Mild atopic dermatitis generally affects a small area of skin and may be itchy once in a while.
- Moderate and severe atopic dermatitis affect larger areas of skin and are itchy more often. The itch may be intense.
Finding out you or your child has atopic dermatitis can leave you feeling overwhelmed so it's crucial to reach out for help and information about the disease. Along with obtaining the best possible treatment plan, it is important to make your emotional and physical wellbeing a priority and to nurture relationships with compassionate people who enrich your life. You don't have to do it alone – there are many ways to manage your daily life with your family and friends, as you will see in the following sections.
WHAT CAUSES ATOPIC DERMATITIS?
Atopic dermatitis is not contagious— you can’t catch it from someone who has it.
Scientists have uncovered genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors related to the development of atopic dermatitis:
- Filaggrin is a protein that helps our skin barrier function. Without enough filaggrin, moisture can escape the skin and bacteria, chemicals and other substances can enter. A mutation in the gene for filaggrin may be a factor in the development of atopic dermatitis.
- "Atopic" means a tendency to develop allergies. Atopic dermatitis is part of a group of allergic conditions: asthma, hay fever and food allergies. If any of these conditions are in your family, you are more likely to have atopic dermatitis.
- Immune system:
- People with atopic dermatitis can have an over-reactive immune system that, when triggered, can cause the skin to become inflamed.
- Atopic dermatitis is commonly associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) which is an antibody produced by the body in response to a threat.
- Certain foods may contribute to an acute flare of eczema but food allergies do not cause eczema
- Various triggers (see below) can lead to atopic dermatitis flare ups
Triggers of atopic dermatitis:
An eczema flare can appear shortly after or some time following exposure to a trigger.
Here are some examples of everyday things that can trigger an eczema flare or make it worse:
- Metals such as copper and chromium
- Allergens such as cigarette smoke, dust mites, pet dander, pollen and insect bites/stings
- Climate including hot or cold, dry weather or low or high humidity
- Long, hot baths or showers
- Skin infection
- Very dry skin
- Chemicals such as perfumes, lanolin, soap
- Irritants such as wool clothing
- Atopic dermatitis, also called eczema, is characterised by itchy, inflamed and bumpy skin.1,2
- Atopic dermatitis is a chronic condition. It comes and goes and can flare up on different parts of the body.2
- Atopic dermatitis is common among children but can affect people of all ages.3
- An estimated 10% to 15% of children under 5 have atopic dermatitis. Of these, about 40% will live with it as adults.1
- Overall, about 10% to 20% of Canadians live with atopic dermatitis.1
- Having allergies and/or asthma yourself and/or if someone in your family has these conditions makes it more likely you’ll develop atopic dermatitis.3,4
- Atopic dermatitis, especially the itching, can negatively affect quality of life in many ways such as ability to work and sleep.5
- There is no cure for atopic dermatitis; however, doctors can provide a proper diagnosis and a treatment plan to manage the condition and control flare-ups.6
WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS?
A prognosis is the doctor’s best estimate of how a disease will affect a person and how that person will likely respond to treatment.
Atopic dermatitis prognosis:
- Most people who have atopic dermatitis will improve.
- One third of people with atopic dermatitis will develop allergies like hay fever and one third will develop asthma.
- Atopic dermatitis may diminish in severity by the time children are 5 years of age.
- People who developed atopic dermatitis at an early age, have a severe case, have a family history, and have other allergies like hay fever or asthma are more likely to have atopic dermatitis for a long time.
- Because the symptoms of atopic dermatitis are visible and can affect activities of daily life, children can develop long-term emotional problems related to their disease during their developmental years.
Itching is the main symptom and has a substantial impact on quality of life of the person with the condition and their caregivers (e.g., parents). Over 85% of people with atopic dermatitis may experience itch every day.
Itching is usually what leads to all the other signs and complications of the disease. Symptoms vary widely from one person to another. The most common symptoms include:
- Itching, can be severe, particularly at night
- Dry skin
- Discoloration (e.g., red to brownish-gray patches)
- Bumps which can leak fluid, bleed and crust over if scratched
- Thickened, cracked or scaly/leathery skin
- Inflamed swollen skin due to scratching
- Eye problems (eczema on eyelids, cataracts)
- Skin infections
A flare-up of atopic dermatitis is when the skin is most irritable (intensely itchy rash). According to a survey, nearly half of people with moderate/severe atopic dermatitis get a flare at least once a month. People with mild atopic dermatitis are less likely to have flares but among those who do get them a reported 19% have them on a weekly or monthly basis.Eczema in babies
Usually, a dry, itchy and scaly rash appears on the baby’s cheeks. They may have trouble sleeping or get skin infections.Eczema in children
Children with eczema often scratch a lot at their rashes which leaves them, bumpy, swollen, scaly discolored and thickened. They often appear on the bend of the knees and elbows.
When children have atopic dermatitis, it can affect the entire family especially with respect to sleep.
Are there other associated conditions?
Other conditions that may occur in people who have atopic dermatitis:
- Asthma and hay fever: More than 50% of young children with eczema develop asthma and hay fever by age 13.
- Allergic contact dermatitis is common in people with atopic dermatitis. This is when the skin comes in contact with a substance that sensitizes the skin. Contact allergies to nickel are twice as common in people with atopic dermatitis.
- Food allergy: are more likely to occur in people with atopic dermatitis.
- Depression and/or anxiety
- Vitiligo (a disease involving loss of skin color in patches)
- Alopecia areata is a disease that can occur when the body attacks its own hair follicles which can cause hair loss anywhere on the body. This condition can be a complication of atopic dermatitis.
- Skin infections
- Having atopic dermatitis is a risk factor for the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g., Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis) as well as rheumatoid arthritis
- Heart disease such as heart attack
- Metabolic syndrome and its components (type 2 diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure)
- Certain types of cancers
Complications are conditions that result from atopic dermatitis.
- Neurodermatitis: Constantly scratching can cause the skin to become discolored, thick and leathery.
- Skin infections: Repeated scratching of the inflamed skin breaks the skin leading to open sores and cracks which can mean a higher risk of infection from bacteria and viruses such as: herpes simplex virus, warts, molluscum contagiosum and fungal infections.
- Eczema herpeticum: When you have eczema and are infected with the herpes simplex virus, you may develop eczema herpeticum, a serious illness associated with widespread skin problems, blistering, and high fever. This condition can lead to scarring and spread to the eyes and the internal organs.
- Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species: In a recent survey, 38% of participants reported a past episode of oozing lesions, possibly due to a Staphylococcus aureus infection.
- Sleep problems: The itchy feeling can severely disrupt your sleep pattern.
- Eye complications: atopic dermatitis-related eye problems such as eye watering, inflammation around the eye and eye discharge can cause permanent eye damage.
- Other complications include scars, post-inflammatory skin changes, and skin thinning (atrophy) from long-term treatment with topical corticosteroids. A type of atopic dermatitis called pompholyx eczema (affects hands and feet) may cause nail pitting and can cause swelling of the skin around the nails (cuticles).
SUPPORT MEANS EVERYTHING
When you have atopic dermatitis, you may need different types of support at different times. Your friends and family can help, along with your team of health care professionals.
Living with any chronic disease can make you feel isolated and sad; especially when you have to adapt or change your daily routine, see many health care practitioners, and learn medical terms. But you don’t need to do it alone.
Other sources of support are people who have gone through what you’re going through. These people understand how you feel, they can tell you what to expect, how they coped, and give you hope for the future. You can get in touch with people in your situation through organized support programs. If you’re interested in an organized support program, ask your doctor or other member of your healthcare team for more information. Contacting the Canadian Skin Patient Alliance (CSPA), the Eczema Society of Canada (ESC) and the Canadian Dermatology Association (CDA) can also give you access to people and resources.
When you’re living with atopic dermatitis, it’s invaluable to keep the lines of communication open with your family, friends and coworkers: they can’t understand what it’s like to live with atopic dermatitis if you don’t talk openly about it.
Here are some tips and helpful insights we’ve learned from atopic dermatitis patients:
- Ask those closest to you to learn about your condition. This way they’ll understand your symptoms, or even go with you to your appointments. They can read this or other web sites, or consult reliable sources like libraries, or refer to our resources section. Useful websites include the Canadian Skin Patient Alliance (CSPA), the Eczema Society of Canada (ESC) and the Canadian Dermatology Association (CDA).
- Let them know you need their support. This could be just a sympathetic ear when you need to talk. Be sure to tell them that chronic disease like atopic dermatitis always have good and bad days.
- Always be open and honest about your atopic dermatitis. It’s the only way people can help you. Remember, if you’ve ever said to a friend or family member, “You don’t know what it’s like”, that’s maybe because you haven’t told them. It’s best to give others a very clear idea of how they can help you. Here are some examples of what you may ask of your friends and family:
- Bring you the notes from a missed class
- Do a few of your chores such as grocery shopping on days when you’re having a flare or had trouble sleeping the night before
- Plan activities that you can enjoy but will not cause distress, for example taking a nature walk or going to a movie or museum
- Do an art or craft class with you
- Join you for small group meditation
When we stop doing the things we love, our mood drops, symptoms seem worse, and it becomes even harder to get motivated. Keeping fun in your life is absolutely essential — make it a top priority. It boosts your mood, your relationships, and your energy level. Find one activity you love — even a small one — that you can add to each week without fail, and one you can add to each day. Once they become routine, you'll start feeling better and will want to add more.
Atopic dermatitis is different for every patient. Don't hesitate to ask questions and get involved in decision-making regarding your health. And keep in mind there are many options available to you, so if one approach isn’t working, another one might.
Here are some tips on how to get the most out of your appointment with people on your healthcare team:
- Since atopic dermatitis symptoms can vary between and during flares, write down your symptoms as they occur and take pictures of them so you can discuss all your symptoms (not just the ones you happen to have during your appointment)
- Make a list of things that triggered or worsened your symptoms, for example, soaps, detergents, tobacco smoke, sweating, or long, hot showers
- Write down any questions you have and bring the list with you
- Take notes
- Ask who you should call if something happens between scheduled appointments
If you have atopic dermatitis, it’s important to have strategies to minimize scratching, to follow a soothing skin care routine, to eat healthy and exercise and to practice relaxation techniques. Talk to your health care professional for more guidance. While there’s no cure yet for atopic dermatitis, a healthy lifestyle certainly supports overall health.
- Chill the area using a refrigerated soft cotton cloth for 5 to 10 minutes. You can also use a cold pack wrapped in cotton to cool your skin. Cold packs (or ice packs) should never be placed on bare skin.
- Keep nails short
- Use a massage roller over the affected area (over clothes, not directly on the skin)
- Wear cotton or silk gloves to bed
- Keep the bedroom cool – 18oC max
- Avoid too many covers and use cotton or linen sheets
Soothing skin care routines:
Frequent application of moisturizers is key to managing your atopic dermatitis, it will help:
- Improve dryness
- Calm itchiness
- Prevent and reduce flares
- Decrease the need for medications
- Reduce water loss from your skin
You should choose moisturizers that are soothing and do not irritate the skin. Thicker products that both moisturize and provide a barrier are often recommended; however, there are many moisturizers to choose from and patient preference is important.
Generous application of moisturizer several times a day can help minimize skin dryness.
Care for your skin
- Cleansing: mild liquid soaps are the least irritating and most gentle. Verify that the soap you buy does not contain dyes and perfumes.
- Doctors recommend that you bathe or shower (5-10 minutes) in warm, plain water once daily, or every other day.
- Use gentle cleansers only on areas that need cleaning at the end of the bath or shower.
- Taking too many showers can actually wash away the hydrating oils your skin produces.
- Moisturize: dry and rough skin is more sensitive to irritants. Moisturizing 2 to 3 times a day can really help to protect and soothe the skin
- Ideally, apply a moisturizer after a shower or bath when the skin is still damp.
- A “soak and seal” approach offers deep hydration. It involves soaking in a warm water bath for 5-10 minutes, patting to leave the skin slightly damp, applying prescription topicals to atopic dermatitis-affected areas as directed by your doctor, and then, within 3 minutes, applying moisturizer all over the body. Wait a few minutes and apply wet wraps (and place a dry dressing over the wet) for several hours or overnight to hydrate and calm the skin.
- Bandages: bandages over flaring skin can prevent scratching and also protect the skin.
- Cool compresses: soak a cloth in cold water and ring it out, then apply for 20 to 30 minutes on the affected area, then pat the skin dry and apply medication.
Humidity and clothing
- Use a humidifier: keeping the air in your home slightly humid is better for your sensitive skin.
- Appropriate clothing: wear cool, smooth-textured clothing - you can reduce skin irritation by avoiding clothing that's tight, rough or scratchy. Also, in hot weather or during exercise wear light clothes that will help minimize sweating.
Exercise and eat well for overall health
Stress can be a trigger for eczema flare ups. Having a daily exercise routine is proven to lower your stress level, which incidentally reduces the chances of triggering your eczema.Workouts:
Unfortunately, sweat can also be an eczema trigger. Slightly tweak your workout routine by taking more breaks that allow your body to cool down and stay hydrated from within by drinking a lot of water. If indoors use a fan, it helps evaporate sweat. Always wipe away your sweat with a towel and shower right after a workout.Swimming:
If you prefer swimming, apply a thick layer of moisturizer before going in the pool. If you are outside, apply sunscreen after the moisturizer. If the pool is one you haven’t been to before, make sure your skin doesn’t react to the pool chemicals (check on a test patch of skin) and always shower after your swim.Eat healthy
For most people including people with atopic dermatitis, it’s recommended to eat healthy, which means whole foods and lots of fruits and vegetables. Patients can consult Canada’s Food guide for help in making healthy food choices.
According to the National Eczema Association (USA), “Research shows that 70% of your immune system resides in your gut, and a great way to support your gut and immune system is to eat foods high in fiber, vitamin A, C and zinc.”
- Fiber: consuming foods high in fiber can help reduce inflammation. Fiber is mainly found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds.
- Vitamin A: promotes cell turnover and supports the immune system. Foods with vitamin A include sweet potatoes and carrots. Just one whole sweet potato or a half cup of carrots will give you more than 100% of daily recommended vitamin A.
- Vitamin C: is a powerful antioxidant and is involved in the synthesis of collagen for healthy skin. Bell peppers, broccoli, cauliflower and strawberries are great sources.
- Zinc helps the immune system, protects against oxidative stress and helps with skin wound healing. Foods high in zinc include beef, beans and some cereals.
- Vitamin D is involved in many immune and inflammatory functions within the body. You can get Vitamin D from the sun as well as fatty fish and mushrooms.
Avoid triggers whenever possible
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic condition without a cure, but it is manageable. Identifying and avoiding triggers is part of the process and can greatly reduce the number of flare ups. See WHAT CAUSES ATOPIC DERMATITIS? Triggers of atopic dermatitis for a listing of triggers.
Relax to handle stress
In some people, emotional stress can be a trigger for atopic dermatitis symptoms. The first step is to identify what is leading to your feelings of stress and finding ways to manage the stress.
Ways to reduce stress include:
- Breathing exercises
- Music therapy
- Massage therapy
- Art therapy
Cover up for confidence
On days when you might feel particularly self-conscious about the appearance of your skin, you can cover the affected areas with clothing, or use makeup or concealer to mask redness and plaques.
According to a survey, 59% of participants wore clothing to hide affected areas and 15% used makeup to cover affected areas.
However, it's important to never cover open sores or unhealed lesions with makeup or rough fabrics — this could irritate your skin even more.
It’s important to keep in mind that there are few clinical studies that establish the effectiveness of vitamins and supplements for eczema. What works for some people might not work for others. Vitamins and supplements may be harmful when taken together or with other medications including prescribed medications.
- Vitamin D
- Fish oil
- Prebiotics and probiotics
- Primrose oil
Children with atopic dermatitis and their caregivers
Atopic dermatitis, particularly the itch and sleep disruption, can be very challenging for children with the disease, their caregivers (parents) and the entire family. For children, the sleep disruption alone can lead to difficulties in daily life activities (school, play, etc.), emotional and behavioral problems as well as delayed physical and social development. For parents and other caregivers, round the clock monitoring of scratching as well as special bathing, laundry and other routines can be very demanding. Caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis report exhaustion, frustration, and mood disorders. For caregivers, the Sick Kids Hospital and the Eczema Society of Canada offer guidance and resources on coping and day to day management of kids’ atopic dermatitis. The Eczema Society of Canada also provides resources just for kids such as story and colouring books.
People with atopic dermatitis may feel embarrassed by their condition. This can lead to social withdrawal and low self-esteem. Some people may feel that they have less self-control over their own lives when they cannot stop scratching.
Ways of coping with these emotions include physical activity, good nutrition, balancing being active with rest and communicating honestly with friends and family regarding your fears and concerns. Try to find an activity that helps you cope such as yoga, socializing or adopting a more flexible work schedule.
If you’d like advice on coping strategies, there are options. Your level of comfort with the support setting is very important. If you prefer talking with one person at a time, a counselor or trusted friend might be the best choice. If you prefer talking with other atopic dermatitis patients who are experiencing the same thing you are experiencing, then a peer-support group run by a local clinic may be the best option for you. Try contacting the Canadian Skin Patient Alliance (CSPA).
COMPLEMENTARY THERAPY OPTIONS
For some people with atopic dermatitis, complementary and alternative therapies—treatments that fall outside the scope of traditional western medicine—are options that can be considered: These treatments may cause side effects and/or have drug interactions with your current treatment plan. There is little and/or no research or data that can be provided to support the safety or effectiveness of these treatments.
- Hypnotherapy and biofeedback
- Yoga, Qigong and Tai Chi
- Acupressure and massage
- Traditional Chinese medicine
Alternative topical treatments
- Coconut and sunflower oil balms
- Vitamin B12 cream
The management of atopic dermatitis can be complex with various elements, from trigger avoidance to treatment with prescription drugs. Due to this, it’s a good idea to work with your healthcare provider to develop a written multi-step plan. This plan should include specific bathing instructions, moisturizing recommendations, as well as guidance for use of any prescribed therapies.
Moisturizing is a key element of day-to-day therapy; however, prescription treatments are often needed during flares.
Treatment with moisturizer and topical therapy
Adapted from the National Eczema Association (USA)
Topical anti-inflammatory treatments:
- Topical corticosteroids
- Are used to treat itching and inflammation
- Strengths are mild to potent
- Side effects can include thinning of the skin (if used excessively or for long periods)
- Side effects are more likely if strong preparations are used
- Topical calcineurin inhibitors
- Are used to treat itching and inflammation and calm the over-active immune response in the skin that leads to eczema flares
- Side effects may include burning or warm sensation, tingling, or itching at the application site
- Topical PDE4 inhibitors
- Are used to manage inflammation in the skin
- Side effects may include burning or mild stinging after application
- Used to control widespread inflammation on the skin; however, they are rarely used and are reserved for the most severe cases of atopic dermatitis.
- Examples of side effects include: increased appetite, weight gain, bloating, change in taste, abnormal fat deposits, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain. This is not a complete list.
- Injectable treatments used to manage inflammation
- Are for patients with moderate or severe eczema that have not responded well to topical treatments
- Conjunctivitis (pink eye) is the most common side effect and there may be redness at the site of the injection. Other side effects may include: upper respiratory tract infections (such as common cold and sore throat), injection site reactions (itching, pain, redness, tenderness, warmth in the area around the injection), eye problems (eye inflammation, including redness, swelling, and itching).
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor
- Oral treatment used to reduce inflammation
- For patients with refractory moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (eczema) when treatment with other medications has not worked well or was not tolerated well. Refractory means a condition resistant to treatment.
- Side effects may include throat and nose infections, cough, headache, nausea, cold sores, back pain, acne, cancers, serious infections and blood clots. People with eczema may also get the following side effects: inflammation (swelling) of the hair follicles, flu (influenza), pain in your belly (abdomen), fatigue (feeling unusually tired and weak) and hives (urticaria).
- Broad and narrow-band UVB light can treat localised patches of eczema on the body. Accessibility may be a major barrier to its use, as it requires office visits 2–3 times per week for at minimum 6–12 weeks. Also, it is not for areas covered by hair (e.g., scalp) and those not easily exposed (e.g., skin folds).
- Continued exposure to UVB light can cause premature aging of the skin, skin cancer, eye damage, dry skin, freckling and sunburn.
Therapies to manage infection may be prescribed for any patient with atopic dermatitis:
- Topical antibiotics:
- For localized patches of infected or resistant eczema
- Side effects of these types of products can include: itching, burning sensation, irritation or pain in the area where the medication is used as well as skin rashes, skin redness, blistering of the skin and hives
- Combination Topical Treatments
- A topical antibiotic combined with topical corticosteroids may be used to treat inflammation and bacterial infection
- Side effects of these types of products can include: itching, burning or irritation in the area where the medication is used, various types of skin rashes (dermatitis) in the area where the medication is used, thinning of the skin, stretch marks or surface veins, skin redness, lightening of skin colour, change in growth of your body hair, excessive sweating
- Oral antibiotics
- To treat significant skin infections (can be caused by scratching and are widespread on the skin)
- Side effects can include nausea, diarrhea, and potential allergic reactions
Depending on the severity of your atopic dermatitis, you may have one or more of the following people on your healthcare team:
- Family physician
- Walk-in clinic physician
- Nurse practitioner
- Clinical immunologist
Other healthcare professionals may also be involved, such as nurses and social workers.
Please note that the information on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for seeking medical advice or treatment from a physician. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a medical condition or health problem. Speak to your health care provider if you have any questions about your medical condition, symptoms or treatment options.
Canadian Skin Patient Alliance (CSPA)canadianskin.ca/atopic-dermatitis-eczema
The CSPA mission is to promote skin health and improve the quality of life of Canadians living with skin conditions, diseases and traumas.
Eczema Society of Canadaeczemahelp.ca/about-eczema/treating-eczema-atopic-dermatitis
The Eczema Society of Canada is dedicated to helping those suffering with eczema by providing support, offering education, raising awareness, and supporting research.
Canadian Dermatology Associationdermatology.ca/public-patients/skin/eczema
The CDA aims to advance medical science related to the care of the skin, hair and nails and to support patient care; provide public education on sun protection and other aspects of skin health; and promote a lifetime of healthier skin, hair and nails.
Eczema Quebec aims to improve education and care, to increase knowledge of atopic dermatitis and to promote awareness.